Host Plant Associations of Anagrus spp. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) and Erythroneura elegantula (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Northern California
Anagrus erythroneurae S. Trjapitzin & Chiappini and Anagrus daanei Triapitsyn are the key parasitoids of the western grape leafhopper (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn) in northern California vineyards. Erythroneura elegantula overwinters as an adult in reproductive diapause. To successfully overwinter, Anagrus spp. must locate an alternate leafhopper host that overwinters in an egg stage that they can parasitize. These alternate leafhopper hosts are thought to be primarily located in the natural habitats surrounding vineyards. This study identifies the noncrop host plants utilized by Anagrus spp. not only during the overwintering period but throughout the entire year, as well as the leafhopper species associated with these host plants. Over a 2-yr period, Anagrus spp. and leafhoppers were sampled from numerous plants in natural and cultivated habitats surrounding vineyards. Results from this study confirm previously known Anagrus spp. host plants, but also identify new host plant species. Some of the host plants harbored Anagrus spp. year-round while others were utilized only during certain periods of the year. Leafhoppers associated with Anagrus spp. host plants may potentially serve as the alternate host utilized by Anagrus spp. on these plants, but this was not confirmed in the current study. Records of E. elegantula demonstrate their cyclical movement between the vineyard floor (winter), temporary noncrop hosts (spring/fall), and the grape vine canopy (summer).