Nutritional requirements of Xylella fastidiosa, which causes Pierce's disease in grapes
A defined medium (XF-26) containing 3 inorganic salts, 2 tricarboxylic acids, 17 amino acids, potato starch, phenol red, and agar was used as the starting point for the study. Deletions of one or more ingredients were performed to prepare various media. A medium was considered able to support growth of Xylella fastidiosa strains responsible for Pierce's disease in grapes, only after 10 serial passages had been completed. Of 3 inorganic salts, K2HPO4 and MgSO4. 7H(2)O were essential, and (NH4)(2)HPO4 was nonessential for growth. Of the Krebs cycle intermediates, all (citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate) but isocitrate supported growth of cultivated strains, whereas only citrate alone or citrate plus succinate supported the primary isolation of PD bacterium. Of 17 amino acids, 6 uncharged polar R groups (asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, serine, and threonine) supported growth, whereas 8 nonpolar R groups (alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, and valine) or 3 positively charged polar groups (arginine, histidine, and lysine) did not. Starch proved to be nonessential.