Estimation of developmental parameters for adult emergence of Gonatocerus morgani, a novel egg parasitoid of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, and development of a degree-day model
The effects of temperature on the development (egg-adult emergence) of Gonatocerus morgani Triapitsyn, a newly-described parasitoid of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were determined at 14.8, 18.7, 23.5, 26.9, 28.7, 30.4, 32.8, and 33.8 degrees C in the laboratory. Survival rate (percent adult emergence from parasitized host eggs) varied significantly among the experimental temperatures, with the highest (59%) and lowest (0%) occurring at 30.4 and 33.8 degrees C, respectively. The survival rates (%) were fitted with a polynomial model to describe a temperature-dependent pattern. Developmental rates (1/d) across seven temperatures were fitted with the nonlinear Briere model, which estimated the lower threshold to be 8.06 degrees C, the optimal temperature to be 29.22 degrees C, and the upper threshold to be 33.49 degrees C. A linear model fitted to developmental rates at 14.8-28.7 degrees C indicated that 189.75 degree-days above the lower threshold of 9.71 degrees C were required to complete development. A simulation model of G. morgani adult emergence was constructed to predict daily counts over the entire range of constant temperatures by incorporating the survival rate model, the Briere model, and the Weibull model. In outdoor validation, a degree-day model for predicting adult emergence showed <= 2 d differences between prediction and observation. Based on the observed temperature requirement, the insect could complete thirteen to sixteen generations per year in southern California, depending on weather and location. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc.