The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa
Simpson, AJG; Reinach, FC; Arruda, P; Abreu, FA; Acencio, M; Alvarenga, R; Alves, LMC; Araya, JE; Baia, GS; Baptista, CS; Barros, MH; Bonaccorsi, ED; Bordin, S; Bove, JM; Briones, MRS; Bueno, MRP; Camargo, AA; Camargo, LEA; Carraro, DM; Carrer, H; Colauto, NB; Colombo, C; Costa, FF; Costa, MCR; Costa-Neto, CM; Coutinho, LL; Cristofani, M; Dias-Neto, E; Docena, C; El-Dorry, H; Facincani, AP; Ferreira, AJS; Ferreira, VCA; Ferro, JA; Fraga, JS; Franca, SC; Franco, MC; Frohme, M; Furlan, LR; Garnier, M; Goldman, GH; Goldman, MHS; Gomes, SL; Gruber, A; Ho, PL; Hoheisel, JD; Junqueira, ML; Kemper, EL; Kitajima, JP; Krieger, JE; Kuramae, EE; Laigret, F; Lambais, MR; Leite, LCC; Lemos, EGM; Lemos, MVF; Lopes, SA; Lopes, CR; Machado, JA; Machado, MA; Madeira, AMBN; Madeira, HMF; Marino, CL; Marques, MV; Martins, EAL; Martins, EMF; Matsukuma, AY; Menck, CFM; Miracca, EC; Miyaki, CY; Monteiro-Vitorello, CB; Moon, DH; Nagai, MA; Nascimento, ALTO; Netto, LES; Nhani, A; Nobrega, FG; Nunes, LR; Oliveira, MA; de Oliveira, MC; de Oliveira, RC; Palmieri, DA; Paris, A; Peixoto, BR; Pereira, GAG; Pereira, HA; Pesquero, JB; Quaggio, RB; Roberto, PG; Rodrigues, V; Rosa, AJD; de Rosa, VE; de Sa, RG; Santelli, RV; Sawasaki, HE; da Silva, ACR; da Silva, AM; da Silva, FR; Silva, WA; da Silveira, JF; Silvestri, MLZ; Siqueira, WJ; de Souza, AA; de Souza, AP; Terenzi, MF; Truffi, D; Tsai, SM; Tsuhako, MH; Vallada, H; Van Sluys, MA; Verjovski-Almeida, S; Vettore, AL; Zago, MA; Zatz, M; Meidanis, J; Setubal, JC
Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis-a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.