Evidences of Siderophores Synthesis by Grapevine Xylella fastidiosa, Causal Agent of Pierce's Disease, through Instrumental Approaches

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Siderophore molecules from grapevine Xylella fastidiosa were investigated. Such metabolites sequester iron, an essential element, from the host, making them a potential factor of pathogenicty. In an iron-limited medium, siderophores were detected in culture plates of X. fastidiosa containing the complex Chromeazurol S (CAS). A combination of different instrumental analyses was used for siderophore(s) characterization, such as: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), micelar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) and electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results show that grapevine X. fastidiosa produced siderophore(s), as confirmed by the CAS plate assay. The extraction of the compound(s) using IMAC with immobilized Fe(3+) was important for analyte purification. The chelator was not separated by capillary zone electrophoresis, indicating the possibility of a neutral compound under the investigated pHs. MEKC runs presented a different peak (when compared to the control analysis) which represented a slightly hydrophobic compound. Mass spectrometry showed that the compound(s) may have a relative molecular mass within the expected range for siderophore molecules, such as 875, 1004 and 1092 Da.


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  • Vitis vinifera
  • Xylella fastidiosa


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