Identification and molecular mapping of PdR1, a primary resistance gene to Pierce's disease in Vitis
A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling resistance to Pierce's disease (PD) of grape, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), was identified on a Vitis linkage map and denoted as 'Pierce's disease resistance 1' (PdR1). Placement of the locus was accomplished by evaluating a family of full-sib progeny from a cross of two PD-resistant interspecific hybrids with resistance inherited from Vitis arizonica. Resistance was measured under greenhouse conditions by direct quantification of Xf numbers in stem tissues as well as by evaluation of disease symptoms based on leaf scorch and a cane maturation index (CMI). A large QTL (LOD 17.2) accounting for 72% of the phenotypic variance in bacterial numbers was localized to linkage group 14 of the male parent F8909-17. The approximate 95% confidence interval around the QTL peak extended 5.7 cM when using composite interval mapping. The other disease evaluation methods (leaf scorch and CMI, respectively) placed the resistance QTL to the same region on linkage group 14, although at wider 95% confidence intervals (6.0 and 7.5 cM), lower peak LOD scores (11.9 and 7.7) and accounting for less phenotypic variance (59 and 42%). This is the first report of an Xf resistance QTL mapped in any crop species. The relevance of the markers located in the region spanning the QTL will be discussed, addressing their usefulness for the development of PD-resistant grape cultivars.