Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca and olive produced lipids moderate the switch adhesive versus non-adhesive state and viceversa
Global trade and climate change are re-shaping the distribution map of pandemic pathogens. One major emerging concern is Xylella fastidiosa, a tropical bacterium recently introduced into Europe from America. In last decades, X. fastidiosa was detected in several European countries. X. fastidiosa is an insect vector-transmitted bacterial plant pathogen associated with severe diseases in a wide range of hosts. X. fastidiosa through a tight coordination of the adherent biofilm and the planktonic states, invades the host systemically. The planktonic phase is correlated to low cell density and vessel colonization. Increase in cell density triggers a quorum sensing system based on mixture of cis 2-enoic fatty acids-diffusible signalling factors (DSF) that promote stickiness and biofilm. The lipidome profile of Olea europaea L. (cv. Ogliarola salentina) samples, collected in groves located in infected zones and uninfected zones was performed. The untargeted analysis of the lipid profiles of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) positive (+) and negative (-) plants showed a clustering of OQDS+ plants apart from OQDS-. The targeted lipids profile of plants OQDS+ and OQDS- identified a shortlist of 10 lipids that increase their amount in OQDS+ and X. fastidiosa positive olive trees. These lipid entities, provided to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca pure culture, impact on the dual phase, e.g. planktonic <-> biofilm. This study provides novel insights on OQDS lipid hallmarks and on molecules that might modulate biofilm phase in X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca.