Observations of acoustic signaling in three sharpshooters: Homalodisca vitripennis, Homalodisca liturata, and Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera : cicadellidae)
Observations and comparative data are presented on the acoustic signals of three sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) species native to North America. The acoustic signals of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), native to the southeastern United States, are compared with two smaller sharpshooters native to the western United States, Homalodisca liturata Ball and blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret). Each sharpshooter is a known vector of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Male acoustic signals from all three species and female signals from H. liturata and G. atropunctata were recorded from host plant substrates. The H. vitripennis calls were recorded in the evening and morning, whereas H. liturata and G. atropunctata were recorded in the afternoon. Each species has a characteristic acoustic signal of which the male call structure is most complex in H. vitripennis and simplest in H. liturata. Male-female acoustic duets in H. liturata and G. atropunctata were recorded, and distinct differences were found in the reply latencies between male and female calls in these species.