Anatomy and histology of reproductive organs of female Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera : Cicadellidae : Proconiini), with special emphasis on categorization of vitellogenic oocytes
The anatomy and histology of female Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Ci-cadellida: Proconiini) reproductive organs is described using light microscopy. The reproductive organs of H. coagulata consist of one pair of ovaries, each with 10 telotrophic ovarioles, a pair of lateral oviducts, a common oviduct, a spermatheca, an enlarged genital duct, a complex bursa copulatrix, a vagina, two types of accessory glands, and a genital chamber. The reproductive organs follow the general pattern seen in cicadellids. The complex bursa copulatrix, important in copulation and sperm transfer, is described. A set of morphological criteria were selected, based on the stage of oocyte development, and used to evaluate and assign the rank of ovarian development for field-collected individuals and to assess the overall reproductive status of female insect populations. A principal component analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics suggests that the ovarian ranks reflect the reproductive status of the females. Understanding reproductive status and patterns is critical for determining the optimal time to implement control methods to suppress H. coagulata populations in southern California.