Grapevine insect pests and their natural enemies in the age of global warming
We review direct and indirect effects of climate change on both the grapevine plant as a host for phytophagous insects, as well as on grape insect pests, their natural enemies and corresponding future grape plant protection strategies. Phenology, voltinism and distribution ranges are well known traits of many arthropods influenced by temperature as the key abiotic factor and thus by current and future climate change scenarios. Case studies of grapevine pests based on data from three decades point to clear changes in phenology of grape berry moths, shifts in distribution ranges of leafhoppers as vectors of grapevine diseases and range expansion of grapevine mealybugs. These case studies also illustrate the need to include data on putatively changed tri-trophic interactions in vineyards when predicting impacts of climate change on grapevine pest insects. Hence, future pest management strategies should be based on a sound set of field data obtained for both pests and antagonists under changed abiotic conditions, which can also build the basis for refining and extending currently existing models for forecasting population levels of respective insect pests.