Biology and host specificity of Gonatocerus deleoni (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), a potential biocontrol agent of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in California, USA
The host-specificity and biological traits of Gonatocerus deleoni Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Virla (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), a potential candidate for biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were determined under laboratory conditions. G. deleoni is a solitary egg parasitoid native to Argentina, originally reared from sentinel eggs of Tapajosa rubromarginata (Signoret) (Cicadellidae). With GWSS as a fictitious host, G. deleoni's average development time from oviposition to adult emergence was 18.8 +/- A 1.4 days, with males developing faster than females (18.0 +/- A 1.3 days, males; 19.0 +/- A 1.3 days, females). The average parasitism rate on 1-8-day-old eggs was 45.7% but this was significantly affected by the age of the egg, ranging from 1.4% to 69.9% (egg ages 8 and 3, respectively). The average sex ratio was 0.34 (percent males) and sex ratio was not significantly affected by egg age. G. deleoni was able to develop in eggs of GWSS and Homalodisca liturata Ball (both in the tribe Proconiini), but was unable to develop on eggs of Graphocephala atropunctata (Signoret) (different tribe, same subfamily) or Erythroneura elegantula Osborn (different subfamily).