Susceptibility of tangerines to citrus variegated chlorosis
Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a citrus disease first discovered in Brazil in 1987, is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by sharpshooters and budwood. Since the disease affects almost all sweet orange cultivars, it has become one of the most serious problems for Brazilian citriculture. To evaluate their resistance to CVC disease, fifteen tangerines or mandarins (C. reticulata Bianco) and their hybrids were grafted on Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb.) and inoculated with CVC-contaminated Pera sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osb.) by twig grafting in a greenhouse. Tangerines and their hybrids Wilking, Fortune, Sunki, Ellendale, Orlando tangelo, Nunes clementine, Nova, Sun Shu Sha Rat, Suenkat, and Batangas showed CVC leaf symptoms and gave positive results on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (with specific primers for X. fastidiosa), indicating that they are susceptible to CVC. Although X. fastidiosa bacteria were detected by ELISA and PCR in inoculated plants of tangerines Crave and Oneco, no CVC leaf symptoms were observed on these two cultivars, suggesting that they are tolerant to the disease. CVC leaf symptoms were not observed and X. fastidiosa was not detected in tangerine Dancy and mandarins Okitsu satsuma and Ponkan after inoculation, showing that they are resistant to the disease.