Sonication-Assisted Production of Fosetyl-Al Nanocrystals: Investigation of Human Toxicity and In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy againstXylella fastidiosa
Recently, there is a growing demand in sustainable phytopathogens control research. Nanotechnology provides several tools such as new pesticides formulations, antibacterial nanomaterials and smart delivery systems. Metal nano-oxides and different biopolymers have been exploited in order to develop nanopesticides which can offer a targeted solution minimizing side effects on environment and human health. This work proposed a nanotechnological approach to obtain a new formulation of systemic fungicide fosetyl-Al employing ultrasonication assisted production of water dispersible nanocrystals. Moreover, chitosan was applicated as a coating agent aiming a synergistic antimicrobial effect between biopolymer and fungicide. Fosetyl-Al nanocrystals have been characterized by morphological and physical-chemical analysis. Nanotoxicological investigation was carried out on human keratinocytes cells through cells viability test and ultrastructural analysis. In vitro planktonic growth, biofilm production and agar dilution assays have been conducted on twoXylella fastidiosasubspecies. Fosetyl-Al nanocrystals resulted very stable over time and less toxic respect to conventional formulation. Finally, chitosan-based fosetyl-Al nanocrystals showed an interesting antibacterial activity againstXylella fastidiosasubsp.paucaandXylella fastidiosasubsp.fastidiosa.