Gene expression analysis of six GC-rich Gram-negative phytopathogens
Predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes are comparatively analyzed for six GC-rich Gram-negative phytopathogens, i.e., Ralstonia solanacearum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and Xylella fastidiosa. Enzymes involved in energy metabolism, such as ATP synthase, and genes involved in TCA cycle, are PHX in most bacteria except X. fastidiosa, which prefers an anaerobic environment. Most pathogenicity-related factors, including flagellar proteins and some outer membrane proteins, are PHX, except that flagellar proteins are missing in X. fastidiosa which is spread by insects and does not need to move during invasion. Although type III secretion system apparatus are homologous to flagellar proteins, none of them is PHX, which support the viewpoint that the two types of genes have evolved independently. Furthermore, it is revealed that some biosynthesis-related enzymes are highly expressed in certain bacteria. The PHX genes may provide potential drug targets for the design of new bactericide. (C) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.