Spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera : Cicadellidae)
A 4-yr landscape-scale study was conducted to investigate spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the lower San Joaquin Valley, California. Spatial structures of H. coagulata distributions were characterized with Moran's I index, and spatial associations between H. coagulata and the surrounding environment were investigated with a geographic information system. H. coagulata was caught consistently with sticky traps throughout the winter, and trap catches formed a distinctive peak in December or January, indicating active flight of H. coagulata during the winter. In 2000-2001, the mean +/- SE trap count was 4.8 +/- 1.21 per trap per wk, and H. coagulata trap catches were spatially autocorrelated within approximate to 1.3 km. Approximately 49% of H. coagulata were caught in citrus, 23% in stone fruit, and 11% in grape. After a control program began in spring 2001, the mean trap count was considerably lower (0.041 +/- 0.0004 per trap per wk), and no spatial autocorrelations were detected in 2001-2004. H. coagulata trap catch-crop associations also changed after initiation of the control program. Between 25 and 38% of H. coagulata trap catches were from citrus, between 8 and 20% were from stone fruit, and between 11 and 25% were from grape. Potential for winter-season spread and management of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a pathogen causing Pierce's disease, are discussed.