Phenology and demography of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera : Cicadellidae) in southern California citrus and implications for management

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Populations of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) were sampled from citrus orchards in southern California, USA to characterize and quantify seasonal occurrences of nymphs and adults with the goal of identifying management opportunities through well-timed treatments and/or natural enemy releases. Higher densities of H. coagulata in 2001 contributed to a complete seasonal profile that began in early spring with the emergence of first instar nymphs and their progression through five nymphal instars lasting until mid-August. Adult emergence began in mid-June with peak adult densities attained from mid to late August followed by a gradual decline through autumn. A persistent and significant male bias was observed in the adult sex ratio from the time of first emergence through mid-October in oranges; the same trend was present in lemons, but with more variability. Adult densities gradually declined through the winter months into the following spring before rapidly increasing again in June as the 2002 spring generation of nymphs began emerging as adults. The seasonal timing of nymphs and adults in 2002 was nearly identical to that observed the previous year. Phenology data from both years were incorporated into a stochastic, temperature-dependent model that predicts the occurrences of H. coagulata stages through time. Applications of imidacloprid early in the spring generation of nymphs proved very effective at reducing nymphs and sustaining lower densities of adults through summer.


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