Reproductive and developmental biology of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera : Cicadellidae)

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The reproductive and developmental biology of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, a parasitoid of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata (Say), was determined at five constant temperatures in the laboratory: 15; 20; 25; 30; 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, G. ashmeadi maintained the highest successful parasitism rates with 46.1% of parasitoid larvae surviving to adulthood. Lifetime fecundity was greatest at 25 degrees C and fell sharply as temperature either increased or decreased around 25 degrees C. Temperature had no effect on sex ratio of parasitoid offspring. Mean adult longevity was inversely related to temperature with a maximum of 20 days at 15 degrees C to a minimum of eight days at 33 degrees C. Developmental rates increased nonlinearly with increasing temperatures. Developmental rate data were fitted with the modified Logan model for oviposition to adult development times across each of the five experimental temperatures to determine optimal and upper lethal temperature thresholds. The lower developmental threshold estimated by the Logan model and linear regression were 1.10 and 7.16 degrees C, respectively. Linear regression of developmental rate for temperatures 15-30 degrees C indicated that 222 degree-days were required above a minimum threshold of 7.16 degrees C to complete development. A temperature of 37.6 degrees C was determined to be the upper development threshold with optimal development occurring at 30.5 degrees C. Demographic parameters were calculated and pseudo-replicates for intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)), net reproductive rates (R-o), generation time (T-c), population doubling time (T-d), and finite rate of increase (lambda) were generated using the bootstrap method. Mean bootstrap estimates of demographic parameters were compared across temperatures using ANOVA and nonlinear regression. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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